دنیای مکانیزاسیون کشاورزی
بنده دانشجوی دکتری مکانیزاسیون کشاورزی(گرایش انرژی) هستم

        
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I. Grammar
 
PART A:
For  questions  1-10  read  the  text  below. Use  the word given  in  capitals at  the
end of each line to form a word that fits in the space in the same line. There is
an example at the beginning (0). 
Write your answers on the separate answer sheet.
 
TRAINING SHOES
It is not (0) surprising that training shoes have become               SURPRISE  
such big business. Sporting (1) ….…………... of all kinds  ACTIVE        
have become popular, particulary (2) ……...………………  EXPENSIVE        
sports like running where equipment is (3) ……………….  NECESSARY        
apart from shoes. Runners suffer more (4) ………............   INJURE      
than many other athletes. The runner (5) ………….. strikes  REPEAT       
the ground with his feet, which can have (6) ……………...  DISASTER
effects. Research has led to the (7) ………………….…of    DEVELOP      
running shoes and a considerable (8) ………………..… in  REDUCE 
problems with the feet and ankles. A (9) ………...……. of   COMBINE
padding and air cushions provide (10) ………………. from  PROTECT 
hitting the pavement with a force twice your weight.
 
PART B:
Look at each line of the following text. Some of the lines are correct and some
have a word which should not be  there. If a  line  is correct, write ‘correct’  by
the number on the separate answer sheet. If a line has a word which should not
be there,write‘incorrect’. There are two examples at the beginning (0 and 00).
 
How TV helped me learn a language
    0 when I first came to live in spain, I could noy to (incorrect)
    00 speak any Spanish. I had to learn to speak quickly (correct)
11. because of my job. Some friends suggested to buying a
12. television and this turned out to be realy good advice.
13. At the first, I did not really understand anything at
14. all, but little by little I began to pick up the main ideas.
15. I would been read an English newspaper the same day
16. so I know that what was happening around the world
17. anyway and I could understand the news. But the best of
18. programmes for learning Spanish were the game shows.
19. I must have watched hundreds of them in the first few
20. months after I came to live here. Because of the same
21. patterns are repeated again and again, you learn the rules
22. of the language almost automatically. Despite of the fact  ﯽﺴﯿﻠﮕﻧا نﺎﺑز           
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23. that they were not the kinds of programmes I would normally 
24. have watched, I began to quite enjoy of them. Although 
25. speak Spanish well now, I still watch them sometimes. 
 
II. Vocabulary
 
PART A:
 
 Frome the list below, fill in each blank with the most appropriate two-word
phrase.
                                                           
will at D
cause just G force labor C
mobility upward F process due B
management middle E relations employee A
-
- -
- -
- -
 
 
Many  companies  fire  or  force  early  retirement  on  highly  paid  older  executives.
Employees  are  fighting  back,  saying  that  nonunion white-collar  workers  cannot
be  fired  (26)  -------------  and  that  any  company which wants  to  fire  an  employee
must first show (27) ----------------- .
      Age bias  is partly a  result of  the  large number of younger executives. As  the
number of younger, (28) --------------  level executives  increases,  the need for (29)
-------------- increases. This may become a greater problem as more of the (30) ---
----------- grows older.
 
PART B:
 
Choose  the  most  appropriate  term  from  the  following  list  to  complete  the
sentences. Use each term one time.
 
                    A. estimates       D. recessionary      G. rate of return     J. scarcity
                    B. pay off           E. cash flow          H. growth industry
                    C. allocating      F. forestall            I . audits
                      
         31. Many plants in such industries as steel had to close down when
               the economy entered a(n)…………… period.
         32. Some of the new energy-related businesses provide …………… 
               of homes and install energy-saving products.
          33. In its search for new technology, Aluminum Co. of America is
                ………….. a larger part of its R&D budget for energy conservation.
          34. Most energy-intensive industries have only a 3.9% average
                 …………… on sales.
          35. Energy-intensive industries frequently have problems with ……….. .  ﯽﺴﯿﻠﮕﻧا نﺎﺑز           
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          36. Because of increased energy conservation, businesses have had
                to lower their …………….. of energy demand. 
          37. The utility companies are encouraging energy conservation in
                an effort to …………… building additional capacity.
          38. The concern for energy conservation has created a new and
                dynamic …………. .
          39. Many companies, like Union Carbids, find that their efforts to
                create new technology …………… financially.
  40. Social security is the real root of our capital …………….  problem.
 
III. Reading Comprehension
 
PART A: 
 You  are  going  to  read  part  of  an  introduction  to  a  book  for  people who  are
thinking  of working  and  travelling  abroad. For questions 41-55,  choose  from
the sections of the introduction A-F. Some of the sections may be chosen more
than once.
Mark your answers on the separate answer sheet.
 
Working your way around the world
 
A  For  many,  deciding  to  get  up  and go  is  the biggest  stumbling block – often
the  hardest  step  is  fixing  a  departure  date.  Once  you  have  bought  a  ticket,
explained  to  your  friends  and  family  that you  are off  to  see  the world  (they will
either  be  envious  or  disapproving)  and  packed  away  your  possessions,  the  rest
seems  to  look  after  itself.  Inevitably,  first-time  travellers  suffer  some  separation
anxieties  as  they  consider  leaving  behind  the  comfortable  routines  of  home. But
missing  home  is  usually  much  worse  in  anticipation  than  it  is  when  you  are
actually  away.  As  long  as  you  have  enough  motivation,  together  with  some
money and a copy of this book, you are all set to have a great time abroad.
 
B  Either you follow your first urge and opt for an  immediate change of scenery,
or you plan a job and a route in advance. However they approach it, not everyone
does  it  for  the  same  reasons.  On  the  one  hand,  some  people  use working  as  a
means to an end – they work in order to fund further travelling. Other people look
upon a  job abroad as an end in itself, a way to explore other cultures, a means of
satisfying  their  curiosity  about  whether  there  is  any  truth  in  the  clichés  about
other nationalities.
C  When  you  are wondering whether  you  are  the  right  sort  to work  abroad, do
not  imagine you  are  a  special  case.  It  is not only students or school-leavers who
enjoy  the  chance  to  travel  and  work  abroad.  I  have  heard  of  a  diplomat  who
enjoyed washing  dishes  in  a  restaurant  and  a  physiotherapist who  packed  fish  –
there  are  countless  other  similar  examples. All  these  people were motivated  not  ﯽﺴﯿﻠﮕﻧا نﺎﺑز           
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by a desire to earn money but by a longing for new and different experiences, and 
a conviction that not all the events of one’s life need to be connected with careers
or success. For many, a  job abroad  is  the best way to shake off the boredom that
comes with routine.
 
D  It is not the lazy optimists of this world who succeed in getting jobs. If you go
abroad  and  ‘wait  for  something  to  come  up’,  you  will  soon  find  yourself
penniless,  with  no  prospects  of  adding  to  your  travel  funds.  If  you  wait  in
idleness  at  home  or  if  you  sit  in  your  hotel  abroad  all  day, worrying  about your
decreasing  funds  or  hesitating  because  you  are  convinced  the  situation  is
hopeless,  or  that  you  lack  the  necessary  documents  to  work,  you  will  get
absolutely nowhere.
 
E   Every  successful  venture  combines  periodic  dreaming  with  methodical
planning. The majority  of  us  lack  the  courage  (or  the  foolishness)  just  to get up
and  go.  Any  homework  you  do  ahead  of  time  will  benefit  you  later,  if  only
because  it will give you more confidence. As one disappointed  traveller  reported
after a  frustrating  job search,  ‘I would never again go abroad specifically  to  look
for  work  without  thoroughly  researching  the  enterprise’.  But  it  is  important  to
strike  a  good  balance  between  strictly  following  a  prearranged  timetable which
might  stop you  from grasping opportunities as  they arise, and setting off with no
idea what you’re looking for.
 
F   For  many  people,  a  shortage  of  money  is  the  main  obstacle.  It  is  the  rare
individual  who  specializes  in  ‘risky  arrivals’,  with  hardly  any  money.  Other
people  wait  until  they  have  substantial  savings  before  they  dare  leave  home,
which  gives  them  the  enviable  freedom  to  work  only  when  they  want  to.
Sometimes  lack  of money  pushes  people  into  action. One  traveller  reported  that
he  had  been  avoiding  jobs  he  didn’t  fancy  until  he  realized  he was  down  to  his
last  100  francs, whereupon  he  decided  to  stop  being  so  fussy  about  the  kind  of
work he was prepared to do. The next day, he found a job.
 
 
            In which section (A-F) of the article are the following stated?
 
41. It is unwise to go abroad without having made any plans.
42. If you don’t find a job, your money will quickly start to run out.
43. Fears you may have before you leave aften turn out to be unnecessary.
44. If you have made some plans, you will feel better about the trip.
45. Some people only work abroad so that they can travel afterwards.
46. Certain kinds of people never find a job abroad.
47. Most people make sure they have plenty of money before they go abroad.
48. All kinds of people decide to spend some time working abroad.
49. Be prepared to change the plans you made before you went abroad.  ﯽﺴﯿﻠﮕﻧا نﺎﺑز           
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50. Other people may react badly when you decide to go abroad to work.
51. Some people believe that it is impossible for them to find a job abroad.
52. Some people can choose when to work and when not to.
53. It can be difficult to make up your mind to go abroad and work.
54. Sometimes people have to accept jobs they are not keen on.
55. Some people work abroad to have a break from their normal lives.
 
PART B:
 
Read  the  following passages and answer  the questions  (56-65) by chosing  the
answer (1), (2) , (3) or (4). Then mark the correct choice on your answer sheet.
 
THE WORLD  is  divided  into  the  ‘haves’  and  the  ‘have  nots’:  those who have
had  their  names  used  in  popular  songs  and  the  rest. The  ‘haves’  include  anyone
named Eleanor, Carol, Bernadette, Maria, Frankie or Johnnie. Girls called Sue or
Suzie  are  especially  fortunate, what with  ‘Wake up Little Suzie’  and  so on. The
‘have-nots’,  a  large  and  unhappy  group,  include  people  named Graham, Bruce,
Jacqueline and a great many others. Anyone with a name  like  these  is  likly  to go
through  life without  ever  hearing  their  name  in  a  song on  the  radio or  anywhere
else.
         But help  is at hand. Serge Romano has started a business called ‘Songs for
You’  in  Melbourne,  Australia.  Anyone  can  have  a  song  written,  recorded,
preserved and presented to fit their specifications.
  Serge  got  the  idea  for  ‘Songs  for You’  about  a year  ago when he  and his
wife Cathy were at a wedding. ‘The groom had got a song done for his bride. The
reaction  from  her  and  the  bridesmaids  and  other  guests  was  fantastic.  A  little
while  later I was discussing  it with friends, and  it struck me  that  this could really
take off ’.
  Aiming at  the wedding and engagement market,  the Romanos advertise on
cards  in  florists  and  photographers’  studios,  but  they will  also  take  requests  for
songs  for  birthdays, Christmas  and  anniversaries. The minimum  fee  is $300. For
this, clients get a recorded version of their song on cassette (a CD is extra), plus a
framed copy of the lyrics.
  The creative process begins with a client  filling out a questionnaire: About
your song. This seeks details of the special occasion, relationship with the person
to be  immortalised  in song, how  they met, habits and most memorable moments.
The  musical  style  can  be  tailored  to  suit  the  client.  For  lovers,  something
romantic; for a younger listener a heavy-maetal feel might be more appropriate.
  Each client gets a different song,  though Serge admits that they may repeat
a  line  from  time  to  time. They  try  to avoid  this as  there  is always  the danger  that
two  clients may meet  and  compare  songs,  but most  songs  are  so  personal,  they
couldn’t  be  about  anyone  else.  They  might  include  nicknames  or  references  to
some special habit.  ﯽﺴﯿﻠﮕﻧا نﺎﺑز           
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  Most of Serge’s customers are very satisfied with their songs. ‘Yesterday I
met a girl who’d had a song done for her for Christmas. She played it in the bank
where she works. She was nearly crying, explaining  to me how much  it meant  to
her. She knows the words by heart,’ says Serge. ‘To anyone else’, he suggests, ‘it
might seem just like any other song, but Mary certainly doesn’t think so.’
  Are  there any situations  that Serge and his songwriters couldn’t deal with?
For  example  a woman  about  to  split  up with  a man who wants  to  leave  him  a
song  to  remember  her  by?  Could  Serge  and  his  team  come  up  with  something
appropriate? ‘Sure. We could do that. Though it’s not a situation we’ve ever been
presented with. Thank goodness!’
 
Choose the correct alternative to answer the following questions. 
  
 
56. Does the word ‘these’ in line 6 refer to:
      A)  names like Maria, Frankie or Johnnie?
      B)  names like Graham, Bruce or Jacqueline?
      C)  names like Eleanor, Carol or Bernadette?
      D)  names like Sue or Suzie?
57. Does the word ‘her’ in line 14 refer to:
      A)  Serge’s wife Cathy?
      B)  the groom?
      C)  Serge?
      D)  the bride?
58. Does the word ‘this’ in line 28 refer to:
      A)  repeating a line from time to time?
      B)  two clints meeting?
      C)  writing different songs for each client?
      D)  clients comparing songs?
59. Dose the word ‘so’ in line 36 refer to the fact:
      A)  that there are situations that Serge and his songwriters couldn’t deal with? 
      B)  that it meant a lot to her?
      C)  that it seems just like any other song?
      D)  that she knows the words by heart?
60. Does the word ‘that’ in line 40 refer to:
      A)  leaving him with a song to remember her by?
      B)  coming up with something appropriate?
      C)  being presented with a situation?
      D)  dealing with the request?
 
  ﯽﺴﯿﻠﮕﻧا نﺎﺑز           
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Find words in the text with the following meanings. Write your answers
on the separate answer sheet.
 
 
61. A word meaning ‘man about to be married’.  …………
62. A word meaning ‘woman about to be or recently married’.  …………
63. A word meaning ‘unmarried girls who help the woman getting
      married at a marriage ceremony’.  ……………..
64. A word meaning ‘agreement to marry’.  ………………..
65. A word meaning ‘a date that is remembered because it is an exact number of 
       years after an event’. …………………
 
PART C:
You are going to read a magazine article about friendship. Choose from the list
A-H  the  sentence  which  best  summarizines  each  part  (66-70)  of  the  article.
There  extra  sentences  are  two  which  you  do  not  need  to  use.  There  is  an
example at the beginning (0).
Mark your answers on the separate answer sheet.     
 
List A-H
 
A  Relationships with best friends provide more than just fun.
 
B  Friendships with best friends develop naturally.
 
C  Relationships with best friends continue for longer than other 
     relationships.
D  Relationships with best friends can become strained.
 
E   It is easy to overcome problems in relationships between best
     friends.
 
F   It’s a shame to go therough life without a best friend.
 
G  Best friends value their relationship with each other.
 
H  People sometimes neglect their relationship with their best
      friend.
 
 
65.  We may complain and worry about love and romance, but how many of us  spend
time and effort on  the one  relationship  that can  make    the difference  between a  ﯽﺴﯿﻠﮕﻧا نﺎﺑز           
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rich  and  happy  life  and  feeling  lonely  and  depressed  –  the  relationship we  have
with our best friend?
 
66.   A  relationship  with  a  best  friend may  not match  the  highs  and  lows  of  a  love  
affair, but in most cases it is a far more solid and reliable commitment, which will
outlast  even  the  most  passionate  romance.  Debbie  and  Sally  have  been  best
friends  since  school.  As  teenagers  they  went  shopping  together  on  Saturday
mornings and   then sat  in cafés all afternoon, giggling about  the  idiotic behaviour
of  the boys  at  school. Now  in  their early  thirties,  they  talk on  the  phone  two or
three  times  a week  and meet  once  a  fortnight  to  catch  up  on  each  other’s  lives.
While boyfriends have come and gone, their friendship has outlasted them all.
 
67.   ‘Sally  knows me better  than  anyone  else,’  says Debbie.  ‘When  I get  fed up  and
everything  looks  hopeless, she sits and  listens when  I  tell her what’s getting me
down.When we’ve  had  a  good  chat,  or  spent  hours  laughing,  I  go  home  feeling
on  top of  the  world.’ Sally  feels  the same. ‘A couple of  years ago, Debbie was
thinking  of  going  to  Australia  to  work.  I was  devastated.  It  made me   realize 
how   important our  friendship  is.  I  remember  thinking  that  if  she had decided  to
go, it would have been like losing my right arm.’
 
   68. While  a night out with your  closest  friend might be  the best guarantee of a good 
time,  there  is  a  serious  side  to  all  of  this.  Having  a  best  friend  to  turn  to  and  
confide  in can have a positive effect on your emotional health. In  fact, your best
friend can prevent you from developing serious psychologincal problems, such as 
depression  and  anxiety,  and  if  you  do  find  yourself  depressed,  he  or  she  can be 
the major force that enables you to get over it.
        
69. But best friendships aren’t all sweetness and  light. As  the old saying goes,‘there’s
thin line between love and hate’, and the person you care about the most can also
be  the  one who  can  hurt  you most  deeply.  Jealousy  and  competition  are major
sources of difficulty.Two friends who have been close for years, sharing a similar
lifestyle,  can  find  their  relationship  threatened  if  one  suddenly  has  a  change  in
fortune.
 
70. Best  friendships  evolve with  time – you  cannot go out  and pick your best  friend.
We  become  friends  with  people  who  share  common  interests  –  at  school  or
through  hobbies,  for  example.We  become  best  friends  with  someone  usually
because we  spend more  time with  them  than with  anyone  else,  and  because we 
can confide in them intimetaly.
 



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