دنیای مکانیزاسیون کشاورزی
بنده دانشجوی دکتری مکانیزاسیون کشاورزی(گرایش انرژی) هستم

Why mechanize?

Agricultural machinery has got progressively larger. It is now feasible for one man to plough in excess of 10 hectares in a day with suitable machinery. In 1996 the majority of all tractors sold were above the 100 horsepower bracket.  It is unlikely that we shall ever see a return to more labour intensive food production in the UK, although some organic systems are more labour intensive. On a world basis, 65% of food is produced by non-mechanized methods. 

Advantages of mechanization:

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Substitute for labour

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Labour is too expensive to do everything (in developed countries)

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Compensate for labour peaks (i.e. harvest)

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Labour skills and strengths often inadequate for large scale production and materials handling

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Amenity reasons (often repetitive dirty tasks)

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Attract or retain farm staff

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Increase productivity of farm staff.

Pause for thought...................Does the person who operates the machinery need to be familiar with crop management and/or environmental issues, or are they purely an operative taking instructions from a line manager?

Machinery repairs 1920's and 2000, note the difference in manpower

Disadvantages of mechanization:

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Redundancy - machinery for labour substitution

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Cost - finance, fuel etc.

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Often needs highly skilled operator, increased wages

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Often doesn't live up to expectations

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Health and safety

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Environmental costs

Landmarks in farm mechanization

CLICK HERE for history of farm machinery, Rural History centre, University of Reading

750 BC

Bronze plough share
1840 McCormick reaper
1850 Steam engine - farm traction engines - steam plough
1870 Cream separator
1879 McCormick land wheel driven self binder (Pictured below)
1895 Pulsation milking machine (improved 1910)
1900 +  Early tractors
1930 Diesel engines & three point linkage
1938 Combine harvester
1950's  Diesel Engine and tractors became more common, post war production boom
1980's Increase in sophistication of electronics
1990's Precision farming, yield mapping and sophisticated software

 

McCormick land wheel driven self binder 

Tractors

Farm tractors first appeared in a crude form in the latter years of the nineteenth century. They started to make a real impact on British farming during the First World War when American examples were imported to help with the drive to increase food production. These early types were comparatively inefficient, unreliable and expensive for many farmers to have confidence in. 

Cultivation, 1930's style

By the 1930s, however, when the picture above was taken, design improvements together with cheaper manufacturing methods were leading to changes and the tractor became a progressively more familiar sight in the landscape. In the middle of that decade, the first production tractors incorporating Harry Ferguson's hydraulic system for attaching implements appeared and introduced a new generation of tractor design which has continued on through to the present.

The old and new

Tractors are the multi-functioning workhorse of the modern day farm. They are used in field and yard operations, carrying, powering and utilizing a wide variety of tools and equipment. A farmer can expect to achieve up to 8000 hrs relatively trouble free operation from a modern farm tractor.  Improvements over the previous two decades include:

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Turbo chargers with or without intercoolers

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Increase in use of four wheel drive tractors

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Improved operator comfort

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More sophisticated transmission systems

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Front and rear mounted tools

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Sophisticated hydraulic systems

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Improved chassis strength and weight distribution

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Improved tyre technology

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Fast and high clearance tractors

CLICK HERE  for the Opico website which gives details, pictures and facts and figures for a wide variety agricultural machinery (often including an environmental perspective). Check out the cultivation machinery in particular.

Health and Safety

Statistics show that if you work in the agricultural sector for 20 years, there is a 1 in 575 risk that you will die as a result of an accident at work. (HSE, 1997)

The main causes of farm accidents with machinery are:

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People riding on the foot plate of moving tractors and being crushed by rear wheels

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Catching overhead power lines with fore end loaders or whilst tipping trailers

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Children killed by machinery in farm yards owing to poor visibility when manoeuvring machinery

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Attempting to maintain or 'unblock' machinery while the power take off (PTO) is still engaged

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Poor maintenance of brakes and tyres

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removal of safety guards

Farm workshops and modern farm machinery present potential dangers

Agricultural vehicles and the law

Agriculture is not defined in the road traffic act of 1988, only by the 1947 Road Traffic Act, section 109. Agricultural Motor Vehicles are totally exempt from the requirements of most traffic laws and regulations for two main reasons.

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They are constructed or adapted for a particular use (agriculture, horticulture or forestry or a combination of all) off the road.

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When travelling on public roads the speeds at which agricultural vehicles are driven and the distances travelled are, at least historically, low.

Wide and long loads

Agricultural vehicle:

Tractors combines etc.

Agricultural vehicle with implements and trailed appliances

Projections forward and rearward of agricultural vehicle

Width Comment Width Comment Length Comment

Up to 2.5m

No restrictions

Up to 2.5m

No restrictions

1-2m

1. Projections must be visible

2. Sharp projections guarded

3.lights at night or reduced visibility

3.0-3.5m

Notification to police. speed limit 20 mph

3.0-3.5m

Notification to police.

1. Extremities marked (marker boards)

2. Lights at night or reduced visibility

2-4m

1. Marker boards required

2.lights at night or reduced visibility

3.5-4.3m

Notification to police:

1. Escort vehicle

2. Extremities of vehicle to be well marked and lit at night or in poor visibility.

Speed limit 12mph

3.5-4.3m

Notification to police.

1. Extremities marked (marker boards)

2. Lights at night or reduced visibility

3. Escort vehicle

4-6m

1. Marker boards required

2. Notification to police

3. Lights at night or reduced visibility

Over 4.3m

Notification to Dept. of transport

1. Escort vehicle

2. Extremities of vehicle to be well marked and lit at night or in poor visibility.

Speed limit 12mph

 

Over 4.3m

Notification to Dept. of transport

1. Extremities marked (marker boards)

2. Lights at night or reduced visibility

3. Escort vehicle

Over 6m

1. Marker boards required

2. Notification to police

3. Lights at night or reduced visibility

4. Escort vehicle Speed limit 12mph

 

24 hours notice must be given to Chief Constable of whichever force being applied to, before any movement can be made.

Where dispensations have been authorized the other conditions will still apply.

Some police forces restrict movement of such vehicles to daylight hours.

If in doubt contact your local abnormal loads officer.

Pause for thought................List 4 reasons why farmers often do not comply with road traffic legislation.

Outline of the lighting requirements for Agricultural Motor Vehicles (AMV)

Vehicle

Front position

Dipped Headlamp

Rear position

Reg-plate

Brake lights

Indicators

Reflectors

Tractor

Max. speed 20mph

Yes

Yes - on vehicle on or after 1/4/86

Max. speed 15mph

Yes

Yes

No

Yes - on vehicle on or after 1/4/86

Max. speed 15mph

 

Yes

Fast tractor

Max. speed

40mph

Yes

As above

Yes

Yes - on vehicle on or after 1/4/86

Max. 

Yes

Yes

Yes

Other AMV's

Yes

As above

Yes

Yes

No-if max. speed under 26mph

Yes

Yes

Trailers

Yes if:

1. over 1.6m wide

2. Manufactured on or after 1/10/85 & exceeds 2.3m in length

N/A

Yes

Yes if fitted with reg. plate

No

Yes-if manufactured after 1/10/90

Yes

Trailed Appliance

As above

N/A

Yes

Yes

No

As above

Yes

 In addition, as from 1/1/88 all motor vehicles with four or more wheels having a maximum speed not exceeding 25mph must be fitted with, and use an amber warning beacon when driven on an unrestricted (speed limit over 50mph) dual carriageway. This does not apply if:

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Towing a trailer with an amber flashing beacon fitted

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The motor vehicle was in use before 1st January 1947

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The motor vehicle or any trailer being drawn by it is on the dual carriage-way for the purpose of crossing it in the quickest possible manner

When undertaking operations such as hedge cutting a sign such as the one below Right, must be placed on the rear of the machine operating by the roadside, with warning signs at a 100m end of the operation.

 

The police emphasize that when in charge of an AMV one must show consideration to other road users. They will issue a warning and possibly a ticket for an AMV causing a tailback if there are ample spaces to pull in and allow traffic to pass. Mud on roads is dangerous to other road users and can result in prosecution, again warning signs must be clear and in placed well in advance of the hazard, which must be cleaned up as soon as possible. 

Stopped for lunch: Berkshire 2000 (left). Ireland 1992 (right)



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