نمونه تست زبان آزمون دکتری 90
For questions 1-10 read the text below. Use the word given in capitals at the
end of each line to form a word that fits in the space in the same line. There is
an example at the beginning (0).
Write your answers on the separate answer sheet.
It is not (0) surprising that training shoes have become SURPRISE
such big business. Sporting (1) ….…………... of all kinds ACTIVE
have become popular, particulary (2) ……...……………… EXPENSIVE
sports like running where equipment is (3) ………………. NECESSARY
apart from shoes. Runners suffer more (4) ………............ INJURE
than many other athletes. The runner (5) ………….. strikes REPEAT
the ground with his feet, which can have (6) ……………... DISASTER
effects. Research has led to the (7) ………………….…of DEVELOP
running shoes and a considerable (8) ………………..… in REDUCE
problems with the feet and ankles. A (9) ………...……. of COMBINE
padding and air cushions provide (10) ………………. from PROTECT
hitting the pavement with a force twice your weight.
Look at each line of the following text. Some of the lines are correct and some
have a word which should not be there. If a line is correct, write ‘correct’ by
the number on the separate answer sheet. If a line has a word which should not
be there,write‘incorrect’. There are two examples at the beginning (0 and 00).
How TV helped me learn a language
0 when I first came to live in spain, I could noy to (incorrect)
00 speak any Spanish. I had to learn to speak quickly (correct)
11. because of my job. Some friends suggested to buying a
12. television and this turned out to be realy good advice.
13. At the first, I did not really understand anything at
14. all, but little by little I began to pick up the main ideas.
15. I would been read an English newspaper the same day
16. so I know that what was happening around the world
17. anyway and I could understand the news. But the best of
18. programmes for learning Spanish were the game shows.
19. I must have watched hundreds of them in the first few
20. months after I came to live here. Because of the same
21. patterns are repeated again and again, you learn the rules
22. of the language almost automatically. Despite of the fact ﯽﺴﯿﻠﮕﻧا نﺎﺑز
23. that they were not the kinds of programmes I would normally
24. have watched, I began to quite enjoy of them. Although
25. speak Spanish well now, I still watch them sometimes.
Frome the list below, fill in each blank with the most appropriate two-word
will at D
cause just G force labor C
mobility upward F process due B
management middle E relations employee A
Many companies fire or force early retirement on highly paid older executives.
Employees are fighting back, saying that nonunion white-collar workers cannot
be fired (26) ------------- and that any company which wants to fire an employee
must first show (27) ----------------- .
Age bias is partly a result of the large number of younger executives. As the
number of younger, (28) -------------- level executives increases, the need for (29)
-------------- increases. This may become a greater problem as more of the (30) ---
----------- grows older.
Choose the most appropriate term from the following list to complete the
sentences. Use each term one time.
A. estimates D. recessionary G. rate of return J. scarcity
B. pay off E. cash flow H. growth industry
C. allocating F. forestall I . audits
31. Many plants in such industries as steel had to close down when
the economy entered a(n)…………… period.
32. Some of the new energy-related businesses provide ……………
of homes and install energy-saving products.
33. In its search for new technology, Aluminum Co. of America is
………….. a larger part of its R&D budget for energy conservation.
34. Most energy-intensive industries have only a 3.9% average
…………… on sales.
35. Energy-intensive industries frequently have problems with ……….. . ﯽﺴﯿﻠﮕﻧا نﺎﺑز
36. Because of increased energy conservation, businesses have had
to lower their …………….. of energy demand.
37. The utility companies are encouraging energy conservation in
an effort to …………… building additional capacity.
38. The concern for energy conservation has created a new and
dynamic …………. .
39. Many companies, like Union Carbids, find that their efforts to
create new technology …………… financially.
40. Social security is the real root of our capital ……………. problem.
III. Reading Comprehension
You are going to read part of an introduction to a book for people who are
thinking of working and travelling abroad. For questions 41-55, choose from
the sections of the introduction A-F. Some of the sections may be chosen more
Mark your answers on the separate answer sheet.
Working your way around the world
A For many, deciding to get up and go is the biggest stumbling block – often
the hardest step is fixing a departure date. Once you have bought a ticket,
explained to your friends and family that you are off to see the world (they will
either be envious or disapproving) and packed away your possessions, the rest
seems to look after itself. Inevitably, first-time travellers suffer some separation
anxieties as they consider leaving behind the comfortable routines of home. But
missing home is usually much worse in anticipation than it is when you are
actually away. As long as you have enough motivation, together with some
money and a copy of this book, you are all set to have a great time abroad.
B Either you follow your first urge and opt for an immediate change of scenery,
or you plan a job and a route in advance. However they approach it, not everyone
does it for the same reasons. On the one hand, some people use working as a
means to an end – they work in order to fund further travelling. Other people look
upon a job abroad as an end in itself, a way to explore other cultures, a means of
satisfying their curiosity about whether there is any truth in the clichés about
C When you are wondering whether you are the right sort to work abroad, do
not imagine you are a special case. It is not only students or school-leavers who
enjoy the chance to travel and work abroad. I have heard of a diplomat who
enjoyed washing dishes in a restaurant and a physiotherapist who packed fish –
there are countless other similar examples. All these people were motivated not ﯽﺴﯿﻠﮕﻧا نﺎﺑز
by a desire to earn money but by a longing for new and different experiences, and
a conviction that not all the events of one’s life need to be connected with careers
or success. For many, a job abroad is the best way to shake off the boredom that
comes with routine.
D It is not the lazy optimists of this world who succeed in getting jobs. If you go
abroad and ‘wait for something to come up’, you will soon find yourself
penniless, with no prospects of adding to your travel funds. If you wait in
idleness at home or if you sit in your hotel abroad all day, worrying about your
decreasing funds or hesitating because you are convinced the situation is
hopeless, or that you lack the necessary documents to work, you will get
E Every successful venture combines periodic dreaming with methodical
planning. The majority of us lack the courage (or the foolishness) just to get up
and go. Any homework you do ahead of time will benefit you later, if only
because it will give you more confidence. As one disappointed traveller reported
after a frustrating job search, ‘I would never again go abroad specifically to look
for work without thoroughly researching the enterprise’. But it is important to
strike a good balance between strictly following a prearranged timetable which
might stop you from grasping opportunities as they arise, and setting off with no
idea what you’re looking for.
F For many people, a shortage of money is the main obstacle. It is the rare
individual who specializes in ‘risky arrivals’, with hardly any money. Other
people wait until they have substantial savings before they dare leave home,
which gives them the enviable freedom to work only when they want to.
Sometimes lack of money pushes people into action. One traveller reported that
he had been avoiding jobs he didn’t fancy until he realized he was down to his
last 100 francs, whereupon he decided to stop being so fussy about the kind of
work he was prepared to do. The next day, he found a job.
In which section (A-F) of the article are the following stated?
41. It is unwise to go abroad without having made any plans.
42. If you don’t find a job, your money will quickly start to run out.
43. Fears you may have before you leave aften turn out to be unnecessary.
44. If you have made some plans, you will feel better about the trip.
45. Some people only work abroad so that they can travel afterwards.
46. Certain kinds of people never find a job abroad.
47. Most people make sure they have plenty of money before they go abroad.
48. All kinds of people decide to spend some time working abroad.
49. Be prepared to change the plans you made before you went abroad. ﯽﺴﯿﻠﮕﻧا نﺎﺑز
50. Other people may react badly when you decide to go abroad to work.
51. Some people believe that it is impossible for them to find a job abroad.
52. Some people can choose when to work and when not to.
53. It can be difficult to make up your mind to go abroad and work.
54. Sometimes people have to accept jobs they are not keen on.
55. Some people work abroad to have a break from their normal lives.
Read the following passages and answer the questions (56-65) by chosing the
answer (1), (2) , (3) or (4). Then mark the correct choice on your answer sheet.
THE WORLD is divided into the ‘haves’ and the ‘have nots’: those who have
had their names used in popular songs and the rest. The ‘haves’ include anyone
named Eleanor, Carol, Bernadette, Maria, Frankie or Johnnie. Girls called Sue or
Suzie are especially fortunate, what with ‘Wake up Little Suzie’ and so on. The
‘have-nots’, a large and unhappy group, include people named Graham, Bruce,
Jacqueline and a great many others. Anyone with a name like these is likly to go
through life without ever hearing their name in a song on the radio or anywhere
But help is at hand. Serge Romano has started a business called ‘Songs for
You’ in Melbourne, Australia. Anyone can have a song written, recorded,
preserved and presented to fit their specifications.
Serge got the idea for ‘Songs for You’ about a year ago when he and his
wife Cathy were at a wedding. ‘The groom had got a song done for his bride. The
reaction from her and the bridesmaids and other guests was fantastic. A little
while later I was discussing it with friends, and it struck me that this could really
take off ’.
Aiming at the wedding and engagement market, the Romanos advertise on
cards in florists and photographers’ studios, but they will also take requests for
songs for birthdays, Christmas and anniversaries. The minimum fee is $300. For
this, clients get a recorded version of their song on cassette (a CD is extra), plus a
framed copy of the lyrics.
The creative process begins with a client filling out a questionnaire: About
your song. This seeks details of the special occasion, relationship with the person
to be immortalised in song, how they met, habits and most memorable moments.
The musical style can be tailored to suit the client. For lovers, something
romantic; for a younger listener a heavy-maetal feel might be more appropriate.
Each client gets a different song, though Serge admits that they may repeat
a line from time to time. They try to avoid this as there is always the danger that
two clients may meet and compare songs, but most songs are so personal, they
couldn’t be about anyone else. They might include nicknames or references to
some special habit. ﯽﺴﯿﻠﮕﻧا نﺎﺑز
Most of Serge’s customers are very satisfied with their songs. ‘Yesterday I
met a girl who’d had a song done for her for Christmas. She played it in the bank
where she works. She was nearly crying, explaining to me how much it meant to
her. She knows the words by heart,’ says Serge. ‘To anyone else’, he suggests, ‘it
might seem just like any other song, but Mary certainly doesn’t think so.’
Are there any situations that Serge and his songwriters couldn’t deal with?
For example a woman about to split up with a man who wants to leave him a
song to remember her by? Could Serge and his team come up with something
appropriate? ‘Sure. We could do that. Though it’s not a situation we’ve ever been
presented with. Thank goodness!’
Choose the correct alternative to answer the following questions.
56. Does the word ‘these’ in line 6 refer to:
A) names like Maria, Frankie or Johnnie?
B) names like Graham, Bruce or Jacqueline?
C) names like Eleanor, Carol or Bernadette?
D) names like Sue or Suzie?
57. Does the word ‘her’ in line 14 refer to:
A) Serge’s wife Cathy?
B) the groom?
D) the bride?
58. Does the word ‘this’ in line 28 refer to:
A) repeating a line from time to time?
B) two clints meeting?
C) writing different songs for each client?
D) clients comparing songs?
59. Dose the word ‘so’ in line 36 refer to the fact:
A) that there are situations that Serge and his songwriters couldn’t deal with?
B) that it meant a lot to her?
C) that it seems just like any other song?
D) that she knows the words by heart?
60. Does the word ‘that’ in line 40 refer to:
A) leaving him with a song to remember her by?
B) coming up with something appropriate?
C) being presented with a situation?
D) dealing with the request?
Find words in the text with the following meanings. Write your answers
on the separate answer sheet.
61. A word meaning ‘man about to be married’. …………
62. A word meaning ‘woman about to be or recently married’. …………
63. A word meaning ‘unmarried girls who help the woman getting
married at a marriage ceremony’. ……………..
64. A word meaning ‘agreement to marry’. ………………..
65. A word meaning ‘a date that is remembered because it is an exact number of
years after an event’. …………………
You are going to read a magazine article about friendship. Choose from the list
A-H the sentence which best summarizines each part (66-70) of the article.
There extra sentences are two which you do not need to use. There is an
example at the beginning (0).
Mark your answers on the separate answer sheet.
A Relationships with best friends provide more than just fun.
B Friendships with best friends develop naturally.
C Relationships with best friends continue for longer than other
D Relationships with best friends can become strained.
E It is easy to overcome problems in relationships between best
F It’s a shame to go therough life without a best friend.
G Best friends value their relationship with each other.
H People sometimes neglect their relationship with their best
65. We may complain and worry about love and romance, but how many of us spend
time and effort on the one relationship that can make the difference between a ﯽﺴﯿﻠﮕﻧا نﺎﺑز
rich and happy life and feeling lonely and depressed – the relationship we have
with our best friend?
66. A relationship with a best friend may not match the highs and lows of a love
affair, but in most cases it is a far more solid and reliable commitment, which will
outlast even the most passionate romance. Debbie and Sally have been best
friends since school. As teenagers they went shopping together on Saturday
mornings and then sat in cafés all afternoon, giggling about the idiotic behaviour
of the boys at school. Now in their early thirties, they talk on the phone two or
three times a week and meet once a fortnight to catch up on each other’s lives.
While boyfriends have come and gone, their friendship has outlasted them all.
67. ‘Sally knows me better than anyone else,’ says Debbie. ‘When I get fed up and
everything looks hopeless, she sits and listens when I tell her what’s getting me
down.When we’ve had a good chat, or spent hours laughing, I go home feeling
on top of the world.’ Sally feels the same. ‘A couple of years ago, Debbie was
thinking of going to Australia to work. I was devastated. It made me realize
how important our friendship is. I remember thinking that if she had decided to
go, it would have been like losing my right arm.’
68. While a night out with your closest friend might be the best guarantee of a good
time, there is a serious side to all of this. Having a best friend to turn to and
confide in can have a positive effect on your emotional health. In fact, your best
friend can prevent you from developing serious psychologincal problems, such as
depression and anxiety, and if you do find yourself depressed, he or she can be
the major force that enables you to get over it.
69. But best friendships aren’t all sweetness and light. As the old saying goes,‘there’s
thin line between love and hate’, and the person you care about the most can also
be the one who can hurt you most deeply. Jealousy and competition are major
sources of difficulty.Two friends who have been close for years, sharing a similar
lifestyle, can find their relationship threatened if one suddenly has a change in
70. Best friendships evolve with time – you cannot go out and pick your best friend.
We become friends with people who share common interests – at school or
through hobbies, for example.We become best friends with someone usually
because we spend more time with them than with&